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Fit for a Lifetime: The Essential Guide to Better Living, Exercise, and Nutrition: Matt Bishop: Books -
Table of contents

Know that what you put in your body nutrition is as important as you what you do with your body exercise.

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Both are crucial to keeping your engine performing at its best. NOTE: All fields required unless indicated as optional. By clicking the sign up button you agree to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. Platt recommends: Before: Fuel Up!

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Ideally, fuel up two hours before you exercise by: Hydrating with water. Eating healthy carbohydrates such as whole-grain cereals with low-fat or skim milk , whole-wheat toast, low-fat or fat-free yogurt, whole grain pasta, brown rice, fruits and vegetables. During: Make a Pit Stop. After: Refuel Your Tank. More in Fitness. Our editors independently research, test, and recommend the best products; you can learn more about our review process here. We may receive commissions on purchases made from our chosen links. Our Top Picks. Best for Women: Roar Buy on Amazon.

Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns? The 7 Best Weightlifting Books of The 8 of the Best Nutrition Books of The 9 Best Yoga Books of The 8 Best Healthy Cookbooks of The 7 Best Sports Psychology Books of The 7 Best Keto Cookbooks of The 7 Best Paleo Cookbooks of Although the absolute intake of a nutrient may decrease with age, the absolute intake of energy decreases even more, such that the observed proportion of the nutrient in the diet is higher than that for younger groups. One question was whether dietary guidelines for older adults should be formulated in terms of absolute intake or in terms of nutrient density.

There is no consensus at this point as to how dietary requirements change as a function of age.

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However, some evidence suggests that because of declining metabolic efficiency and bioavailability, requirements for some micronutrients might actually be higher for older adults than for younger people. Although clinical studies revealed few overt nutrient deficiencies among elderly adults 17 , subclinical deficiencies can adversely affect health and physical functioning.

Diet and exercise modulate the rate of functional decline with age and can be used to delay or postpone the onset of disability or dysfunction. For example, the prevalence of osteoporosis goes up with age, roughly doubling with each decade.

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The risk of osteoporosis—a major cause of fractures in postmenopausal women and elderly adults—is reduced by a combination of diet and exercise. Similarly, optimal diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic diseases, notably coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Sedentary lifestyles are becoming increasingly common at any age. Aging leads to lower activity levels and a further narrowing of physical activity options. Recent cross-sectional data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study showed that older adults expended significantly less energy on exercise than did younger adults Walking was the most common physical activity reported by adults Older adults in the United States were more likely to report lower-intensity activities such as walking, gardening, or golf, rather than running, aerobics, or team sports Although the time spent on bicycling and gardening showed a significant drop with age in the Zutphen cohort, the time spent on walking was not affected Significant disparities in activity levels by sex and ethnicity were also noted.

Reported levels of leisure-time physical activity were lowest for minority respondents and for older women.

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Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study showed that important ethnic differences in physical activity patterns remained even after adjustments were made for important demographic factors such as education or income Significantly, unfavorable perceptions of one's own health were associated with lower participation in a cardiac rehabilitation program In contrast, perceived enjoyment and satisfaction were positive predictors of physical activity in men and women of all ages These data suggest that psychosocial rather than biomedical variables may influence continued participation in exercise programs.

The recommendation that every American accumulate at least 30 minutes of exercise on most—and preferably all—days 25 26 is based on evidence that even moderate physical activity is associated with a substantial drop in all-cause mortality Although there is evidence that current activity is more protective than past activity, cumulative lifetime activity pattern may be the most influential factor of all The question remains as to whether a sustained active lifestyle can delay the age-associated changes in body composition and decline in lean body mass.

Studies of physical activity and aging, including some outlined in this volume, suggest that fat-free mass and body composition of active elderly subjects are not very different from those of inactive elderly subjects In contrast to younger subjects, the effect of exercise programs on total activity of elderly subjects was minimal because elderly subjects compensated for exercise training by reducing their spontaneous physical activity. However, exercise training did have a positive effect on muscle function and may have contributed to the activities of daily living. Continuing to function without assistance may be the most salient outcome variable.

Some 7 million Americans over age 65 depend on others for help with some basic task of daily living 2. The Activities of Daily Living score includes capacity for daily self-care as well as other functions related to cooking, eating, and access to food.

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Such activities are essential for ensuring independent living and contribute importantly to overall quality of life. Physical activities that improve muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility also improve ability to perform the tasks of daily living. For example, strength training can result in substantial improvements in muscle size and strength in elderly men and women 28 and can also increase resting metabolic rate, resulting in increased energy requirements In addition, strength training improves balance and gait speed in very old and frail nursing home residents, improves bone health, and decreases many of the risk factors for an osteoporotic fracture Exercise programs for elderly adults can delay the age-induced impairment in personal mobility necessary for the performance of routine activities.

The definition of health used to be based on life expectancy, mortality, and morbidity statistics. Quality of life provides a validated approach for expanding the definition of health to include other domains of physical, mental, and social well-being HRQL measures reflect a personal sense of physical and mental health and the capacity to react to diverse factors in the environment.

Among measurement tools are years and days of healthy life and a self-rated index of overall health. HRQL indexes address broad aspects of physical, mental, and social functioning and their determinants at both individual and community levels 9 One important domain of quality of life is physical functioning, as assessed with the Activities of Daily Living score. Some researchers have argued that quality-of-life measures should go beyond biomedical and health outcomes and that global concepts such as life satisfaction and happiness also ought to be included 9.

In this view, quality of life is a multidimensional construct that addresses physical state, social functioning, and emotional well-being. Recent studies suggest that the key perceived dimensions of quality of life may be comparable across cultures and can be broadly grouped into health, psychological, social, and environmental domains 9.

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The item quality-of-life instrument developed by the World Health Organization lists physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental issues as its four domains 9. As shown in Table 1 , neither the domains nor facets incorporated within domains directly assess food, eating habits, or physical activity issues. Much current research on quality of life has come from clinical studies. The usual focus has been on quality-of-life indexes after surgery or some major health trauma. Studies of quality of life of cancer patients have focused on physical functioning, psychological distress, pain and pain relief, fatigue and malaise, nausea and vomiting, symptoms, and toxic effects.

Social support, economic disruption, and global quality of life were also measured. A number of disease-specific tools were outlined by Amarantos and colleagues One such instrument assessed HRQL specific to obesity and included general health, distress, depression, and self-esteem among its key domains The benefits of diverse medical treatments and interventions are often measured with regard to quality-of-life outcomes 9. Additional studies on quality of life come from the broader arena of research on social indicators.

In studies of developing nations, quality of life is being increasingly used to determine stages of social development in preference to strictly economic indicators such as income or the gross national product. Quality-of-life indexes are a compelling dependent variable, one that is broadly based and well-suited for studies of diet, activity, and health in elderly adults.

Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both health and quality of life of older adults However, the two sets of outcome measures may not be exactly the same. Stewart and King 35 proposed two outcome categories—functioning and well-being—to measure the effect of physical activity on the overall quality of life. Functioning included physical ability and dexterity, cognition, and activities of daily living; well-being included not only symptoms and bodily states but also emotional well-being, self-concept, and global perceptions related to health and overall life satisfaction The basic question was whether outcome measures would best be served by symptom-driven HRQL measures or whether quality of life was more of a psychological construct that included conscious cognitive judgment of satisfaction with one's life.

Physical activity improved HRQL measures regardless of age, activity status, or health of participants However, the relationship between physical activity and quality of life largely depended on what outcome was of greatest concern to the elderly individual. The effect of fitness on HRQL was less dramatic when the person was already functioning above the norm.

In other words, disability and dysfunction were far more salient and far more detrimental to quality-of-life measures than were reductions in the general level of fitness. How does physical activity improve health and quality of life? Rejeski and Mihalko 34 suggested that perceived control and mastery and overall satisfaction and enjoyment may be key variables. Self-esteem and positive feelings may mediate the effect that physical activity has on life satisfaction. However, as Rejeski and Mihalko 34 noted, the current guidelines for exercise prescription offer little advice for outcomes other than improved physical health When quality of life becomes the primary outcome, the focus shifts to areas that are most relevant and most valued.

Continued independent physical functioning is one such area. Furthermore, physical activity programs involve more than performance of a simple act.

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The input that participants may have in the design or running of a program may be more important to quality-of-life outcomes than meeting specific criteria for frequency intensity and duration. Virtually no research has been done on how nutrition and dietary variables can best be integrated in the quality-of-life concept. The focus has been mostly on biomedical measures and health outcomes. For example, clinical assessment of nutritional status in elderly adults is commonly based on dietary intake assessments, anthropometric measures, and plasma chemistry values Such measures have been used to document the prevalence of malnutrition in elderly adults, assess the degree of nutritional risk, and compare dietary intakes with recommended dietary allowances.

Epidemiological studies of diet and chronic disease risk have focused on the relationship between a single nutrient and the relevant health outcome. The traditional approach has been to examine the consumption of fats, saturated fats, or cholesterol in relation to morbidity and mortality data for coronary heart disease or cancer. Other studies have explored the consumption of specific foods or food groups, such as legumes or vegetables and fruits, always relating estimated consumption to plasma biomarkers, disease risks, or some other biomedical endpoint.